To Make Lithium Batteries Fuel Global Carbon Neutrality!
To Make Lithium Batteries Fuel Global Carbon Neutrality!

Ultimate Guide to Battery Voltage Chart

In today’s battery tech world, the diversity and complexity of lithium-ion batteries offer both exciting and challenging choices for users and developers. Different types of lithium batteries, like lithium cobalt oxide, lithium iron phosphate, and lithium polymer, though all part of the lithium family, have vastly different voltage curves and electrochemical characteristics. These differences are crucial for choosing the right charger, calculating charge and discharge voltages, and even understanding the concept of battery balancing.

This article aims not just to compare different types of lithium batteries, lead-acid, and AGM batteries, but to dive into their respective voltage curves, helping readers understand how these curves impact practical applications. Whether you’re looking for the best battery for your device or trying to optimize battery performance and lifespan, a deep understanding of these voltage curves is immensely helpful. From choosing chargers to designing battery management systems, understanding these fundamentals is key.

Let’s explore the core characteristics of these batteries and unlock more possibilities in battery technology.

Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery (LiFePO4)

  • Nominal Voltage: 3.2V
  • Full Charge Voltage: 3.6V – 3.65V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 2.5V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, cylindrical, pouch
  • Features: Excellent thermal stability and safety, thousands of charge-discharge cycles, environmentally friendly, free from harmful heavy metals.

Lithium Cobalt Oxide (Ternary)

  • Nominal Voltage: 3.6V – 3.7V
  • Full Charge Voltage: 4.2V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 2.5V – 3.0V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, cylindrical, pouch
  • Features: Favored for its high energy density and slimness, ideal for portable electronics sensitive to weight and size, though less thermally stable compared to LiFePO4.

Lithium Polymer (Li-Po)

  • Nominal Voltage: 3.7V
  • Full Charge Voltage: 4.2V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 3.0V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Pouch, ultra-thin design
  • Features: Ultra-thin and flexible shape customization, suitable for new portable devices requiring specific battery shapes, good energy density, but handle with care for safety.

AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) Battery

  • Nominal Voltage: 12V (per cell)
  • Full Charge Voltage: About 14.4V – 14.7V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: About 10.5V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, sealed design
  • Features: Good vibration resistance, low self-discharge rate, suitable for backup power and vehicle startups.

Lead-Acid Battery

  • Nominal Voltage: 12V (per cell)
  • Full Charge Voltage: About 13.8V – 14.4V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: About 10.5V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 50°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, available in liquid-maintenance and sealed types
  • Features: Economical, but heavy, high self-discharge rate, suited for low-cost, low-maintenance scenarios like electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS).

Before diving deep into different types of lithium batteries and their voltage charts, understanding these data’s deeper implications is vital for grasping battery performance, routine maintenance, and repair. Lithium batteries, compared to alkaline batteries, show higher operational stability, largely thanks to their unique voltage characteristics.

The voltage corresponding to a battery’s state of charge (SOC) is key to understanding battery behavior. Different lithium battery types, like LiFePO4, ternary, and Li-Po, show their unique voltage curves at different SOC levels. These curves reveal the battery’s performance during charging and discharging, especially the significant voltage changes near full charge and deep discharge. This end-of-charge voltage change is crucial for understanding and predicting battery performance, especially in applications needing precise battery charge and discharge management.

Moreover, understanding these voltage values not only helps us better utilize and maintain batteries but also predicts their lifespan and health. For example, significant voltage changes when a battery is nearly full or overly discharged are vital signals for Battery Management Systems (BMS) to monitor closely. By mastering these key insights, we can more effectively maintain and prolong battery life, ensuring the stable operation of our devices.

Now, let’s delve into the voltage charts of different lithium batteries and how these data affect battery performance and applications.

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery packs come in various voltage ranges, but they are all assembled by connecting basic cells in series or parallel. By connecting cells in series, different voltages can be obtained to meet different production needs.

During the charging and discharging process of LiFePO4 batteries, the relationship between voltage and SOC (State of Charge) exhibits clear nonlinear characteristics. Especially when the battery is approaching full charge or discharge, the voltage changes more rapidly. This phenomenon reflects the sensitivity of battery chemistry to extreme charge and discharge conditions. Therefore, in practical use, it’s advisable to avoid excessive battery discharge to prevent potential balancing issues, protect battery health, and extend its service life.

Single LiFePO4 (LiFePO4) cells typically have a nominal voltage of 3.2 volts. When the voltage of this type of cell is charged to 3.65 volts, it is considered fully charged. During the battery discharge process, when the voltage drops to 2.5 volts, the battery is considered fully discharged. This voltage change range is a critical indicator during the charging and discharging process of LiFePO4 batteries and can indicate the current charging status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 3.5V-3.65V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 2.5V-3.65V
  • Rest Voltage: 3.4V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 2.5V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
3.65V 100% Charging 0%
3.40V 100% Rest 0%
3.35V 90% 10%
3.32V 80% 20%
3.30V 70% 30%
3.27V 60% 40%
3.26V 50% 50%
3.25V 40% 60%
3.22V 30% 70%
3.20V 20% 80%
3.00V 10% 90%
2.50V 0% 100%

A 12V LiFePO4 battery pack is typically composed of four 3.2V cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 12.8V. Charging to 14.6V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 3.65V at this point. Discharging to 10V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 2.5V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is crucial for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 14.2V-14.6V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 10.0V-14.6V
  • Rest Voltage: 13.6V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 10V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
14.6V 100% Charging 0%
13.6V 100% Rest 0%
13.4V 90% 10%
13.3V 80% 20%
13.2V 70% 30%
13.1V 60% 40%
13.0V 50% 50%
13.0V 40% 60%
12.9V 30% 70%
12.8V 20% 80%
12.0V 10% 90%
10V 0% 100%

A 24V LiFePO4 battery pack is usually composed of eight 3.2V cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 25.6V. Charging to 29.2V means that the battery pack is fully charged, and each cell reaches 3.65V at this moment. Discharging to 20V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each single cell at 2.5V. This voltage variation range is critical for monitoring the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 28.4V-29.2V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 20.0V-29.2V
  • Rest Voltage: 27.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 20.0V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
29.2V 100% Charging 0%
27.2V 100% Rest 0%
26.8V 90% 10%
26.6V 80% 20%
26.4V 70% 30%
26.1V 60% 40%
26.1V 50% 50%
26.0V 40% 60%
25.8V 30% 70%
25.6V 20% 80%
24.0V 10% 90%
20.0V 0% 100%

A 36V LiFePO4 battery pack is usually composed of twelve 3.2V cells connected in series, resulting in a total nominal voltage of 38.4V. Charging to 43.8V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, and each cell reaches 3.65V at this moment. Discharging to 30V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 2.5V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 41.4V-42.5V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 30.0V-43.8V
  • Rest Voltage: 40.8V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 30.0V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
43.80V 100% Charging 0%
40.80V 100% Rest 0%
40.20V 90% 10%
39.84V 80% 20%
39.60V 70% 30%
39.24V 60% 40%
39.12V 50% 50%
39.00V 40% 60%
38.64V 30% 70%
38.40V 20% 80%
36.00V 10% 90%
30.00V 0% 100%

A 48V LiFePO4 battery pack is typically composed of fifteen 3.2V cells connected in series, resulting in a total nominal voltage of 48V. Charging to 54.75V means that the battery pack is fully charged, and each cell reaches 3.65V at this moment. Discharging to 20V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each single cell at 2.5V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery. It’s worth noting that if the number of strings increases by 1, then 16 3.2V batteries will be connected in series to form 51.2V. At this time, the full charging voltage will be 58.4V instead of 54.75V. Most people commonly refer to 48V and 51.2V collectively as 48V.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 56.8V-58.4V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 40.0V-58.4V
  • Rest Voltage: 54.4V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 40.0V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
58.4V 100% Charging 0%
54.4V 100% Rest 0%
53.6V 90% 10%
53.1V 80% 20%
52.8V 70% 30%
52.3V 60% 40%
52.2V 50% 50%
52.0V 40% 60%
51.5V 30% 70%
51.2V 20% 80%
48.0V 10% 90%
40.0V 0% 100%

Lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery packs come in various voltage ranges, but they are all assembled by connecting basic cells in series or parallel. By connecting cells in series, different voltages can be obtained to meet different production needs.

During the charging and discharging process of lithium polymer (Li-Po) batteries, the relationship between voltage and SOC (State of Charge) exhibits clear nonlinear characteristics. Especially when the battery is approaching full charge or discharge, the voltage changes more rapidly. This phenomenon reflects the sensitivity of battery chemistry to extreme charge and discharge conditions. Therefore, in practical use, it’s advisable to avoid excessive battery discharge to prevent potential balancing issues, protect battery health, and extend its service life.

Single lithium polymer (Li-Po) cells typically have a nominal voltage of 3.7 volts. When the voltage of this type of cell is charged to 4.2 volts, it is considered fully charged. During the battery discharge process, when the voltage drops to 3.27 volts, the battery is considered fully discharged. This voltage change range is a critical indicator during the charging and discharging process of lithium polymer (Li-Po) batteries and can indicate the current charging status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 4.25V-4.30V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 3.27V-4.30V
  • Rest Voltage: 4.0-4.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 3.27V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
4.30V 100% Charging 0%
4.20V 100% Rest 0%
4.11V 90% 10%
4.02V 80% 20%
3.95V 70% 30%
3.87V 60% 40%
3.84V 50% 50%
3.80V 40% 60%
3.77V 30% 70%
3.73V 20% 80%
3.69V 10% 90%
3.27V 0% 100%

A 2S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 2 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 7.4V. Charging to 8.4V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this point. Discharging to 6.54V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is crucial for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 4.25V-4.30V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 3.27V-4.30V
  • Rest Voltage: 4.0-4.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 3.27V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
8.50V 100% Charging 0%
8.40V 100% Rest 0%
8.22V 90% 10%
8.05V 80% 20%
7.91V 70% 30%
7.75V 60% 40%
7.67V 50% 50%
7.59V 40% 60%
7.53V 30% 70%
7.45V 20% 80%
7.37V 10% 90%
6.55V 0% 100%

A 3S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 3 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 11.1V. Charging to 12.6V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this moment. Discharging to 9.81V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 12.75V-12.90V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 9.81V-12.90V
  • Rest Voltage: 12.6V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 9.82V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
12.9V 100% Charging 0%
12.6V 100% Rest 0%
12.33V 90% 10%
12.07V 80% 20%
11.86V 70% 30%
11.62V 60% 40%
11.51V 50% 50%
11.39V 40% 60%
11.30V 30% 70%
11.18V 20% 80%
11.06V 10% 90%
9.82V 0% 100%

A 4S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 4 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 14.8V. Charging to 16.8V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this point. Discharging to 13.09V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 17V-17.2V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 12.9V-17.2V
  • Rest Voltage: 16.8V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 13.09V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
17.2V 100% Charging 0%
16.8V 100% Rest 0%
16.45V 90% 10%
16.09V 80% 20%
15.81V 70% 30%
15.50V 60% 40%
15.34V 50% 50%
15.18V 40% 60%
15.06V 30% 70%
14.91V 20% 80%
14.75V 10% 90%
13.09V 0% 100%

A 5S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 5 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 18.5V. Charging to 21.0V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this moment. Discharging to 16.37V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each single cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 21.25V-21.50V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 16.37V-21.5V
  • Rest Voltage: 21.0V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 16.37V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
21.5V 100% Charging 0%
21.0V 100% Rest 0%
20.56V 90% 10%
20.11V 80% 20%
19.77V 70% 30%
19.37V 60% 40%
19.18V 50% 50%
18.98V 40% 60%
18.83V 30% 70%
18.63V 20% 80%
18.44V 10% 90%
16.37V 0% 100%

A 6S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 6 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 22.2V. Charging to 25.2V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this point. Discharging to 19.94V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 25.5V-25.8V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 19.94V-25.8V
  • Rest Voltage: 25.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 19.94V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
25.8V 100% Charging 0%
25.2V 100% Rest 0%
24.67V 90% 10%
24.14V 80% 20%
23.72V 70% 30%
23.25V 60% 40%
23.01V 50% 50%
22.77V 40% 60%
22.60V 30% 70%
22.36V 20% 80%
22.12V 10% 90%
19.94V 0% 100%

Lead-acid batteries are like the old-school yet trusty solution for storing energy and they’re used in a bunch of different areas. You’ve got two main types: the flooded or wet lead-acid batteries and the sealed lead-acid batteries, also known as SLA or VRLA. The flooded ones are cheaper to make, so they’re more budget-friendly, but they need some regular TLC like adding distilled water and making sure they’re well-ventilated to avoid any buildup of sulfuric acid gases. On the flip side, SLA/VRLA batteries are more tightly sealed, which means less fuss in maintaining them, and they’re better at preventing leaks, so they can handle a variety of environmental conditions better.

Plus, lead-acid batteries are all over the place in different fields, like being key players in solar power and other renewable energy systems, crucial parts of Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), and they’re also big in the auto industry for starting engines and stuff. They’re super reliable and the technology is well-established, which is why they’re often the go-to choice in these scenarios.

When it comes to voltages, lead-acid batteries typically come in a few standard levels – the most common ones are 12V, 24V, and 48V. These levels have to do with how the batteries are hooked up – either in series or parallel – to meet different power needs. It’s worth noting that to get a good read on a lead-acid battery’s charge state, it’s best to check it out at room temperature after it’s been chilling for at least half an hour. Also, the Depth of Discharge (DOD) for these batteries is usually about 50%, which means you’re only using about half of what the battery can hold. Pushing it beyond that can mess with the battery’s life and performance.

Even though lead-acid batteries aren’t as eco-friendly or energy-dense compared to the newer battery tech out there, their cost-effectiveness, reliability, and low-maintenance vibe still make them a strong option in some cases. But, with tech moving forward, new battery types like lithium are starting to take over some of the roles that lead-acid batteries used to fill. Still, lead-acid batteries are expected to stick around in certain areas for the foreseeable future.

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
12.89V 100%  0%
12.78V 90% 10%
12.65V 80% 20%
12.51V 70% 30%
12.41V 60% 40%
12.23V 50% 50%
12.11V 40% 60%
11.96V 30% 70%
11.81V 20% 80%
11.70V 10% 90%
11.63V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
12.64V 100%  0%
12.53V 90% 10%
12.41V 80% 20%
12.29V 70% 30%
12.18V 60% 40%
12.07V 50% 50%
11.97V 40% 60%
11.87V 30% 70%
11.76V 20% 80%
11.63V 10% 90%
11.59V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
25.77V 100%  0%
25.56V 90% 10%
25.31V 80% 20%
25.02V 70% 30%
24.81V 60% 40%
24.45V 50% 50%
24.21V 40% 60%
23.91V 30% 70%
23.61V 20% 80%
23.40V 10% 90%
23.25V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
25.29V 100%  0%
25.05V 90% 10%
24.81V 80% 20%
24.58V 70% 30%
24.36V 60% 40%
24.14V 50% 50%
23.94V 40% 60%
23.74V 30% 70%
23.51V 20% 80%
23.27V 10% 90%
23.18V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
52.00V 100%  0%
51.10V 90% 10%
50.00V 80% 20%
49.20V 70% 30%
48.60V 60% 40%
48.20V 50% 50%
47.80V 40% 60%
47.24V 30% 70%
46.64V 20% 80%
46.04V 10% 90%
42.00V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
50.92V 100%  0%
50.48V 90% 10%
50.00V 80% 20%
49.48V 70% 30%
48.95V 60% 40%
48.40V 50% 50%
47.84V 40% 60%
47.24V 30% 70%
46.64V 20% 80%
46.04V 10% 90%
45.44V 0% 100%

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) batteries can have different voltage levels, just like other types of lead-acid batteries. AGM technology is a specific kind of lead-acid battery design that uses glass fiber mats to soak up and hold the electrolyte in place. This design lets AGM batteries work in various orientations without leaking, and they also offer great resistance to shaking around and tend to last longer. AGM batteries are also made by linking up individual cells (usually 2 volts each) in a series to create higher-voltage batteries. That’s why you can find AGM batteries in various voltages like 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, etc., to suit different needs. These batteries are super popular in electric vehicles, solar power systems, power tools, marine applications, medical equipment, and pretty much any situation where you need a reliable power source. Thanks to these features, AGM batteries are especially popular in scenarios where you want something that needs less upkeep and is more durable.

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
13.00V 100% Charging 0%
12.85V 100% Rest 0%
12.80V 90% 10%
12.75V 80% 20%
12.50V 70% 30%
12.30V 60% 40%
12.15V 50% 50%
12.05V 40% 60%
11.95V 30% 70%
11.81V 20% 80%
11.66V 10% 90%
10.50V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
26.00V 100% Charging 0%
25.85V 100% Rest 0%
25.55V 90% 10%
25.00V 80% 20%
24.60V 70% 30%
24.30V 60% 40%
24.10V 50% 50%
23.90V 40% 60%
23.62V 30% 70%
23.32V 20% 80%
23.02V 10% 90%
21.00V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
52.00V 100% Charging 0%
51.70V 100% Rest 0%
51.10V 90% 10%
50.00V 80% 20%
49.20V 70% 30%
48.60V 60% 40%
48.20V 50% 50%
47.80V 40% 60%
47.24V 30% 70%
46.64V 20% 80%
46.04V 10% 90%
42.00V 0% 100%

Importance of Battery Balancing for Stable Operation of Battery Packs

  • Consistency in Performance: Balancing ensures all cells in a battery pack perform equally during discharge and charge cycles. An unbalanced battery pack can lead to reduced overall performance due to inconsistencies in individual cells’ charging and discharging states.
  • Extended Lifespan: Each cell in a battery pack might have different capacities and impedances due to manufacturing tolerances and usage conditions. Balancing minimizes overcharging or deep discharging caused by differences in cell performance, extending the overall lifespan of the battery pack.
  • Safety: An unbalanced battery pack might lead to some cells being overcharged or deeply discharged, increasing the risk of thermal runaway and damage. Balancing prevents these extreme conditions, maintaining safe and stable operation.
  • Maximized Capacity: Balancing ensures that each cell is fully charged, allowing the battery pack to utilize its maximum capacity during discharge. This is particularly important for applications requiring maximum battery efficiency, like electric vehicles.
  • Improved Reliability: In critical applications like medical devices or emergency backup systems that rely on continuous power supply, balancing enhances overall system reliability.
  • Optimized Performance: Balanced battery packs operate at their best, improving the effective output of energy and overall system performance.

Common Methods of Battery Balancing

Battery balancing can be achieved through passive (resistive dissipation of excess charge) or active (energy transfer or other methods) techniques. Considering balancing strategies in the design and maintenance of battery packs is crucial to ensure long-term stability and efficiency.

Understanding Individual Cell Voltage Curves Aids in Better Battery Balancing

  • Voltage curves show individual cells’ voltage variations throughout the charging and discharging cycles, helping identify performance differences between cells.
  • Battery balancing is about ensuring all cells maintain uniformity in voltage and capacity. Observing the voltage curves of battery pack cells reveals that even cells with similar performance at manufacturing can vary in capacity and voltage characteristics over time and with more charging cycles. Understanding these curves helps devise strategies to adjust each cell’s state, preventing overcharging or deep discharging, which could degrade the battery pack or even cause damage.
  • During the balancing process, voltage curves are a critical reference, indicating if each cell’s charging state has reached the ideal voltage level. Balancing systems monitor these curves during charging, ensuring all cells are evenly charged, and maintaining the overall health and efficiency of the battery pack. Similarly, during discharge, balancing ensures no single cell is overly depleted, preventing early failure of the entire battery pack.

  • Depth of Discharge (DoD): Deeper discharges accelerate the degradation of battery chemistry and internal structure, causing more intense chemical reactions during charging and faster wear of battery materials. Frequent deep discharges shorten the overall lifespan of the battery. In summary, shallow discharges reduce the impact of each charging cycle on battery health, thereby extending its lifespan.
  • Discharge C-Rate: Higher discharge rates require the battery to release more energy in a shorter period, leading to increased internal temperature and accelerated chemical reactions, thus speeding up aging and capacity decay. High discharge rates increase stress on the battery, shortening its cycle life.
  • Usage Habits: Frequent deep discharges, overcharging, charging at high temperatures, or prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures accelerate the degradation of battery chemistry, reducing its effective lifespan. Reasonable usage habits, like avoiding overcharging and using at suitable temperatures, help extend the battery’s cycle life.
  • Temperature/Humidity: Extreme high temperatures accelerate internal chemical reactions, causing permanent capacity loss, while low temperatures reduce discharge efficiency and power output. High humidity can damage internal structures, leading to shorts or reduced insulation performance. Properly controlling the temperature and humidity environment helps maintain battery stability and prolong life.
  • BMS Quality: The quality of the Battery Management System (BMS) significantly impacts the cycle life of lithium batteries. A high-quality BMS with balancing capabilities, including active and passive balancing, ensures that each cell in the battery pack operates optimally, reducing inconsistencies among batteries. Additionally, some BMSs integrate intelligent management systems, working in conjunction with inverters and other devices for automated charging and disconnection, preventing overuse, and providing appropriate maintenance when needed. These advanced features protect the battery from immediate damage and extend its overall lifespan by optimizing usage modes and providing appropriate charge/discharge cycles.
  • Cell Quality: The quality of the cells themselves affects the cycle life of lithium batteries. Different brands of cells vary in manufacturing processes, material purity, and coating uniformity. High-quality manufacturing ensures the integrity of internal structures and stability of chemical reactions, improving durability and cycle count. The uniformity of the coating process directly affects the battery’s electrochemical performance. Inconsistent coating leads to uneven battery performance and accelerated degradation. Therefore, high standards of production and quality control are key to ensuring the quality of cells and the

To check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack, you can use a multimeter, although it can’t directly measure the battery’s capacity in milliamp-hours (mAh) or amp-hours (Ah). Instead, you’ll be indirectly assessing the capacity by measuring the discharge process. Here’s a basic guide on how to do this:

Preparation:

  • Ensure your multimeter is functioning correctly and set to measure DC current within an appropriate range.
  • Prepare a load of known power (or current), such as a resistor or a dedicated battery discharge tester.

Measuring Initial Voltage of the Battery Pack:

  • Use the multimeter’s voltage measurement function to measure the total voltage of the battery pack, ensuring the battery pack is fully charged.

Connect Load and Begin Discharge:

  • Connect the load to the battery pack and start discharging. Make sure the discharge current is within the permissible range of the battery specifications.

Monitor the Discharge Process:

  • Periodically check and record the battery voltage, noting the discharge time and corresponding voltage readings. Keep the discharge current consistent.
  • Stop discharging when the battery voltage drops to its minimum discharge voltage (typically 2.5V per cell for LiFePO4 batteries).

Calculate Capacity:

  • Capacity (Ah) = Discharge Current (A) × Discharge Time (Hours)
  • If you’re using a resistor as the load, you might need to calculate the discharge current based on the size of the resistor and the battery voltage.

Analyze Results:

  • Compare the calculated actual capacity with the rated capacity specified in the battery specs to assess the health of the battery pack.

Please note, that this method provides a simplified capacity check. Real-world battery capacity testing may need to account for more variables, such as temperature, battery aging, and discharge rate. In practice, using professional battery testing equipment would yield more accurate results. Additionally, if you’re not familiar with handling and testing batteries, it’s advisable to consult a professional to ensure safety.

Using a Battery Monitoring System (BMS) to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is a more direct and automated method than using a multimeter. A BMS can provide real-time data monitoring, including battery voltage, current, temperature, and estimated remaining capacity. Here are the basic steps to check battery capacity using a battery monitoring device:

Installing the Battery Monitoring Device:

  • If not already installed, first, install the battery monitoring device onto the battery pack following the manufacturer’s guidelines. Ensure all connections are correct and secure.

Charge to Full:

  • Fully charge the battery pack until the monitoring device indicates that the batteries have reached their full charge state (for LiFePO4 batteries, the full charge voltage is usually 3.6V to 3.65V per cell).

Set Discharge Parameters:

  • Set the correct battery parameters on the BMS, including battery type, nominal voltage, full charge voltage, and minimum discharge voltage.

Start Discharge:

  • Begin the discharge process, ensuring that the discharge current complies with the battery pack’s recommended discharge current specifications. The BMS will record the discharge current and time.

Monitor and Record Data:

  • The BMS will provide a real-time discharge curve and display the process from full charge to the cutoff voltage (usually 2.5V per cell).

Calculate Capacity:

  • Most battery monitoring devices can automatically calculate and display the total energy released during a discharge cycle, typically expressed in amp-hours (Ah) or watt-hours (Wh).

Analyze Battery Status:

  • Use the data provided by the BMS to assess the health of the battery pack. If the actual capacity is significantly lower than its rated capacity, it may indicate a decline in battery performance or issues with some cells in the pack.

Please note that this process should be conducted under safe conditions and by the guidelines provided by the battery and BMS manufacturers. Regularly performing such capacity tests can help identify battery issues promptly and ensure optimal performance of the battery pack.

Using a solar charge controller to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack involves monitoring the battery’s behavior during the charging and discharging processes. Solar charge controllers typically can monitor battery voltage, current, and sometimes even temperature. With this data, you can indirectly estimate the battery’s capacity. Here’s a basic guide:

Ensure Appropriate Settings:

  • Make sure the solar charge controller is compatible with your LiFePO4 battery pack and correctly set for the battery type, charging voltage, and other relevant parameters.

Charge the Battery Pack:

  • Charge the battery pack to full capacity using the solar charge controller. Many solar charge controllers can display the status and progress of the battery charging.

Record Charging Data:

  • Record the current and time data shown by the charge controller during the process from the beginning of charging to the full charge state. This can help you estimate the maximum capacity of the battery.

Discharge Test:

  • Start from a fully charged state and allow the battery pack to discharge normally through a connected load, such as a home solar system, lighting, etc.
  • The solar charge controller should display the discharge current and voltage, and some advanced models may even provide readings of energy consumption.

Calculate Discharge Capacity:

  • By recording the current and time during the discharge process, you can estimate the capacity of the battery pack in amp-hours (Ah). For example, if the discharge current is 5A and lasts for 4 hours, then the battery capacity is approximately 20Ah.

Analyze Battery State:

  • Using this data, you can understand the performance of the battery under actual use conditions. If the actual capacity of the battery is significantly lower than its rated capacity, it may indicate a decline in battery performance.

Please note that this method can only provide an estimated battery capacity and is not a substitute for professional battery testing equipment. It’s a useful approach for a general understanding of the battery’s condition and performance in a solar energy setup.

Indeed, many modern inverters, particularly those designed for solar panels or home battery storage systems, do have the capability to communicate directly with a Battery Management System (BMS). Such inverters can provide more accurate and detailed data about the battery’s status, including the voltage of each cell, the total capacity of the entire battery pack, and the current charging and discharging status. Here are the steps to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack using these features:

Configuration and Connection:

  • Ensure that the inverter is correctly configured and connected to the Battery Management System (BMS). This usually involves software settings and the proper hardware interface.

Monitoring Software:

  • Use the monitoring software or control panel of the inverter to view relevant information about the battery pack. These systems typically provide real-time and historical data, including the charge/discharge status of the battery pack, cell voltages, total capacity, etc.

Checking Charge/Discharge Status:

  • Observe the battery’s performance under different charging and discharging states. Some systems may also offer advanced features like State of Charge (SOC) estimation and State of Health (SOH) analysis.

Record and Analyze Data:

  • Utilize this data to assess the overall performance and health of the battery pack. If the system provides graphs or trend analysis, it can be easier to identify potential issues or performance degradation.

Utilize Diagnostic Tools:

  • If the inverter or BMS offers diagnostic tools or performance testing features, use these tools for a more in-depth inspection of the battery pack.

Using the built-in communication capabilities of an inverter for battery checks is not only convenient but also provides more accurate and comprehensive information. This is particularly valuable for systems that require fine-tuned battery management, such as solar energy storage systems or electric vehicles. This approach allows users to easily monitor and maintain their battery packs, ensuring long-term reliability and performance.

Using a smartphone app, especially one connected via Bluetooth, to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is indeed a very modern and convenient method. These apps are typically available for various operating systems like iOS, Android, and HarmonyOS, and can be downloaded from their respective app stores. Here’s a general process for checking battery capacity using such apps:

Download and Install the App:

  • On your smartphone, go to the app store corresponding to your operating system (iOS, Android, or HarmonyOS) and download a dedicated battery monitoring app.

Connect to the Battery Pack:

  • Activate Bluetooth on your phone and ensure the battery pack’s Bluetooth module is turned on.
  • Search for and connect to your LiFePO4 battery pack in the app.

View Battery Information:

  • Once connected, you can view various information about the battery pack on the app, including total capacity, voltage of each cell, charging and discharging status, total current, and battery temperature.

Battery Capacity Check:

  • The app may display the battery’s current State of Charge (SOC) and estimated remaining capacity. Some apps also provide historical data and capacity trend analysis.

Balance Control and Troubleshooting:

  • Advanced apps may offer battery balancing control features, allowing you to manually initiate or adjust balancing settings to optimize the performance of the battery pack.
  • If the app includes diagnostic tools, you can use them to detect and troubleshoot potential battery faults.

Data Analysis and Maintenance Recommendations:

  • Use the data and analysis tools provided by the app to assess the health and performance of the battery pack.
  • Perform appropriate maintenance and interventions based on the app’s recommendations to ensure long-term stable operation of the battery pack.

The advantage of this method lies in its convenience and real-time capability. An app connected via Bluetooth offers an intuitive, user-friendly way to monitor and manage the battery pack, making it easy even for non-professional users to perform battery maintenance and troubleshooting. Additionally, the ability to remotely control and monitor the battery pack brings greater flexibility and efficiency to battery management.

Using a web browser to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is indeed a convenient and efficient method, particularly when the battery pack is connected to an inverter with communication capabilities. These inverters can upload battery data to a cloud platform in real time, allowing users to remotely monitor the battery status through a browser. Here are the basic steps for this process:

Ensure Inverter is Connected to the Cloud Platform:

  • First, confirm that your inverter has data upload capabilities and is successfully connected to the cloud platform. This typically requires some initial setup, including network connection and platform account configuration.

Access the Cloud Platform:

  • Enter the cloud platform’s URL in your browser and log in with your account. This information is usually provided by the inverter or battery system supplier.

Navigate to the Battery Monitoring Interface:

  • On the cloud platform, locate the monitoring or dashboard interface related to your battery system. This may include an overview page showing all your connected and bound battery systems.

View Battery Capacity and Other Information:

  • On the battery monitoring interface, you can view key information about your LiFePO4 battery pack, including current capacity, voltage, cycle count, State of Charge (SOC), and more.
  • Some platforms may also provide historical data and trend analysis of the battery, helping you understand the usage and health status of the battery.

Utilize Additional Features:

  • Depending on the platform’s features, you might be able to perform remote operations, such as adjusting charging and discharging settings, executing battery balancing, or troubleshooting potential issues.

Regular Checks and Data Analysis:

  • Regularly log in to the cloud platform to check battery data, ensuring the battery pack is functioning normally and identifying potential issues in time.

The advantage of accessing battery data via a web browser is that you can perform remote monitoring anytime and anywhere, without geographical limitations. This method offers great convenience and flexibility in managing and maintaining battery packs, especially suitable for users who need to remotely manage multiple systems or stay informed about system status while on the move.

Author Profile

Thomas Chen

Thomas Chen is a seasoned expert in the new energy industry, with a focus on lithium battery technology. A Shenzhen University alumnus, class of 2010, Thomas has cultivated a wealth of experience through pivotal roles at EVE and BYD. Renowned for his profound insights into the sector, he possesses a unique aptitude for identifying market trends and understanding customer needs. His articles offer a distinctive perspective, drawn from a rich background in the field.

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In today’s battery tech world, the diversity and complexity of lithium-ion batteries offer both exciting and challenging choices for users and developers. Different types of lithium batteries, like lithium cobalt oxide, lithium iron phosphate, and lithium polymer, though all part of the lithium family, have vastly different voltage curves and electrochemical characteristics. These differences are crucial for choosing the right charger, calculating charge and discharge voltages, and even understanding the concept of battery balancing.

This article aims not just to compare different types of lithium batteries, lead-acid, and AGM batteries, but to dive into their respective voltage curves, helping readers understand how these curves impact practical applications. Whether you’re looking for the best battery for your device or trying to optimize battery performance and lifespan, a deep understanding of these voltage curves is immensely helpful. From choosing chargers to designing battery management systems, understanding these fundamentals is key.

Let’s explore the core characteristics of these batteries and unlock more possibilities in battery technology.

Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery (LiFePO4)

  • Nominal Voltage: 3.2V
  • Full Charge Voltage: 3.6V – 3.65V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 2.5V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, cylindrical, pouch
  • Features: Excellent thermal stability and safety, thousands of charge-discharge cycles, environmentally friendly, free from harmful heavy metals.

Lithium Cobalt Oxide (Ternary)

  • Nominal Voltage: 3.6V – 3.7V
  • Full Charge Voltage: 4.2V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 2.5V – 3.0V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, cylindrical, pouch
  • Features: Favored for its high energy density and slimness, ideal for portable electronics sensitive to weight and size, though less thermally stable compared to LiFePO4.

Lithium Polymer (Li-Po)

  • Nominal Voltage: 3.7V
  • Full Charge Voltage: 4.2V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: 3.0V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Pouch, ultra-thin design
  • Features: Ultra-thin and flexible shape customization, suitable for new portable devices requiring specific battery shapes, good energy density, but handle with care for safety.

AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) Battery

  • Nominal Voltage: 12V (per cell)
  • Full Charge Voltage: About 14.4V – 14.7V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: About 10.5V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 60°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, sealed design
  • Features: Good vibration resistance, low self-discharge rate, suitable for backup power and vehicle startups.

Lead-Acid Battery

  • Nominal Voltage: 12V (per cell)
  • Full Charge Voltage: About 13.8V – 14.4V
  • Minimum Discharge Voltage: About 10.5V
  • Operating Temperature: -20°C to 50°C
  • Common Forms: Rectangular, available in liquid-maintenance and sealed types
  • Features: Economical, but heavy, high self-discharge rate, suited for low-cost, low-maintenance scenarios like electric vehicles and Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS).

Before diving deep into different types of lithium batteries and their voltage charts, understanding these data’s deeper implications is vital for grasping battery performance, routine maintenance, and repair. Lithium batteries, compared to alkaline batteries, show higher operational stability, largely thanks to their unique voltage characteristics.

The voltage corresponding to a battery’s state of charge (SOC) is key to understanding battery behavior. Different lithium battery types, like LiFePO4, ternary, and Li-Po, show their unique voltage curves at different SOC levels. These curves reveal the battery’s performance during charging and discharging, especially the significant voltage changes near full charge and deep discharge. This end-of-charge voltage change is crucial for understanding and predicting battery performance, especially in applications needing precise battery charge and discharge management.

Moreover, understanding these voltage values not only helps us better utilize and maintain batteries but also predicts their lifespan and health. For example, significant voltage changes when a battery is nearly full or overly discharged are vital signals for Battery Management Systems (BMS) to monitor closely. By mastering these key insights, we can more effectively maintain and prolong battery life, ensuring the stable operation of our devices.

Now, let’s delve into the voltage charts of different lithium batteries and how these data affect battery performance and applications.

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery packs come in various voltage ranges, but they are all assembled by connecting basic cells in series or parallel. By connecting cells in series, different voltages can be obtained to meet different production needs.

During the charging and discharging process of LiFePO4 batteries, the relationship between voltage and SOC (State of Charge) exhibits clear nonlinear characteristics. Especially when the battery is approaching full charge or discharge, the voltage changes more rapidly. This phenomenon reflects the sensitivity of battery chemistry to extreme charge and discharge conditions. Therefore, in practical use, it’s advisable to avoid excessive battery discharge to prevent potential balancing issues, protect battery health, and extend its service life.

Single LiFePO4 (LiFePO4) cells typically have a nominal voltage of 3.2 volts. When the voltage of this type of cell is charged to 3.65 volts, it is considered fully charged. During the battery discharge process, when the voltage drops to 2.5 volts, the battery is considered fully discharged. This voltage change range is a critical indicator during the charging and discharging process of LiFePO4 batteries and can indicate the current charging status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 3.5V-3.65V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 2.5V-3.65V
  • Rest Voltage: 3.4V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 2.5V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
3.65V 100% Charging 0%
3.40V 100% Rest 0%
3.35V 90% 10%
3.32V 80% 20%
3.30V 70% 30%
3.27V 60% 40%
3.26V 50% 50%
3.25V 40% 60%
3.22V 30% 70%
3.20V 20% 80%
3.00V 10% 90%
2.50V 0% 100%

A 12V LiFePO4 battery pack is typically composed of four 3.2V cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 12.8V. Charging to 14.6V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 3.65V at this point. Discharging to 10V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 2.5V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is crucial for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 14.2V-14.6V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 10.0V-14.6V
  • Rest Voltage: 13.6V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 10V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
14.6V 100% Charging 0%
13.6V 100% Rest 0%
13.4V 90% 10%
13.3V 80% 20%
13.2V 70% 30%
13.1V 60% 40%
13.0V 50% 50%
13.0V 40% 60%
12.9V 30% 70%
12.8V 20% 80%
12.0V 10% 90%
10V 0% 100%

A 24V LiFePO4 battery pack is usually composed of eight 3.2V cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 25.6V. Charging to 29.2V means that the battery pack is fully charged, and each cell reaches 3.65V at this moment. Discharging to 20V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each single cell at 2.5V. This voltage variation range is critical for monitoring the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 28.4V-29.2V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 20.0V-29.2V
  • Rest Voltage: 27.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 20.0V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
29.2V 100% Charging 0%
27.2V 100% Rest 0%
26.8V 90% 10%
26.6V 80% 20%
26.4V 70% 30%
26.1V 60% 40%
26.1V 50% 50%
26.0V 40% 60%
25.8V 30% 70%
25.6V 20% 80%
24.0V 10% 90%
20.0V 0% 100%

A 36V LiFePO4 battery pack is usually composed of twelve 3.2V cells connected in series, resulting in a total nominal voltage of 38.4V. Charging to 43.8V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, and each cell reaches 3.65V at this moment. Discharging to 30V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 2.5V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 41.4V-42.5V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 30.0V-43.8V
  • Rest Voltage: 40.8V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 30.0V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
43.80V 100% Charging 0%
40.80V 100% Rest 0%
40.20V 90% 10%
39.84V 80% 20%
39.60V 70% 30%
39.24V 60% 40%
39.12V 50% 50%
39.00V 40% 60%
38.64V 30% 70%
38.40V 20% 80%
36.00V 10% 90%
30.00V 0% 100%

A 48V LiFePO4 battery pack is typically composed of fifteen 3.2V cells connected in series, resulting in a total nominal voltage of 48V. Charging to 54.75V means that the battery pack is fully charged, and each cell reaches 3.65V at this moment. Discharging to 20V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each single cell at 2.5V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery. It’s worth noting that if the number of strings increases by 1, then 16 3.2V batteries will be connected in series to form 51.2V. At this time, the full charging voltage will be 58.4V instead of 54.75V. Most people commonly refer to 48V and 51.2V collectively as 48V.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 56.8V-58.4V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 40.0V-58.4V
  • Rest Voltage: 54.4V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 40.0V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
58.4V 100% Charging 0%
54.4V 100% Rest 0%
53.6V 90% 10%
53.1V 80% 20%
52.8V 70% 30%
52.3V 60% 40%
52.2V 50% 50%
52.0V 40% 60%
51.5V 30% 70%
51.2V 20% 80%
48.0V 10% 90%
40.0V 0% 100%

Lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery packs come in various voltage ranges, but they are all assembled by connecting basic cells in series or parallel. By connecting cells in series, different voltages can be obtained to meet different production needs.

During the charging and discharging process of lithium polymer (Li-Po) batteries, the relationship between voltage and SOC (State of Charge) exhibits clear nonlinear characteristics. Especially when the battery is approaching full charge or discharge, the voltage changes more rapidly. This phenomenon reflects the sensitivity of battery chemistry to extreme charge and discharge conditions. Therefore, in practical use, it’s advisable to avoid excessive battery discharge to prevent potential balancing issues, protect battery health, and extend its service life.

Single lithium polymer (Li-Po) cells typically have a nominal voltage of 3.7 volts. When the voltage of this type of cell is charged to 4.2 volts, it is considered fully charged. During the battery discharge process, when the voltage drops to 3.27 volts, the battery is considered fully discharged. This voltage change range is a critical indicator during the charging and discharging process of lithium polymer (Li-Po) batteries and can indicate the current charging status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 4.25V-4.30V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 3.27V-4.30V
  • Rest Voltage: 4.0-4.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 3.27V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
4.30V 100% Charging 0%
4.20V 100% Rest 0%
4.11V 90% 10%
4.02V 80% 20%
3.95V 70% 30%
3.87V 60% 40%
3.84V 50% 50%
3.80V 40% 60%
3.77V 30% 70%
3.73V 20% 80%
3.69V 10% 90%
3.27V 0% 100%

A 2S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 2 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 7.4V. Charging to 8.4V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this point. Discharging to 6.54V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is crucial for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 4.25V-4.30V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 3.27V-4.30V
  • Rest Voltage: 4.0-4.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 3.27V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
8.50V 100% Charging 0%
8.40V 100% Rest 0%
8.22V 90% 10%
8.05V 80% 20%
7.91V 70% 30%
7.75V 60% 40%
7.67V 50% 50%
7.59V 40% 60%
7.53V 30% 70%
7.45V 20% 80%
7.37V 10% 90%
6.55V 0% 100%

A 3S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 3 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 11.1V. Charging to 12.6V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this moment. Discharging to 9.81V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 12.75V-12.90V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 9.81V-12.90V
  • Rest Voltage: 12.6V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 9.82V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
12.9V 100% Charging 0%
12.6V 100% Rest 0%
12.33V 90% 10%
12.07V 80% 20%
11.86V 70% 30%
11.62V 60% 40%
11.51V 50% 50%
11.39V 40% 60%
11.30V 30% 70%
11.18V 20% 80%
11.06V 10% 90%
9.82V 0% 100%

A 4S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 4 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 14.8V. Charging to 16.8V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this point. Discharging to 13.09V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 17V-17.2V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 12.9V-17.2V
  • Rest Voltage: 16.8V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 13.09V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
17.2V 100% Charging 0%
16.8V 100% Rest 0%
16.45V 90% 10%
16.09V 80% 20%
15.81V 70% 30%
15.50V 60% 40%
15.34V 50% 50%
15.18V 40% 60%
15.06V 30% 70%
14.91V 20% 80%
14.75V 10% 90%
13.09V 0% 100%

A 5S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 5 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 18.5V. Charging to 21.0V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this moment. Discharging to 16.37V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each single cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 21.25V-21.50V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 16.37V-21.5V
  • Rest Voltage: 21.0V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 16.37V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
21.5V 100% Charging 0%
21.0V 100% Rest 0%
20.56V 90% 10%
20.11V 80% 20%
19.77V 70% 30%
19.37V 60% 40%
19.18V 50% 50%
18.98V 40% 60%
18.83V 30% 70%
18.63V 20% 80%
18.44V 10% 90%
16.37V 0% 100%

A 6S lithium polymer (Li-Po) battery is typically composed of 6 cells connected in series, with a total nominal voltage of 22.2V. Charging to 25.2V indicates that the battery pack is fully charged, with each cell reaching 4.2V at this point. Discharging to 19.94V means that the battery pack has been fully discharged, with each cell at 3.27V. Monitoring this voltage variation range is critical for tracking the charge and discharge status of the battery.

  • Recommended Charging Voltage Range: 25.5V-25.8V
  • Operating Voltage Range: 19.94V-25.8V
  • Rest Voltage: 25.2V
  • Cut-off Voltage: 19.94V

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
25.8V 100% Charging 0%
25.2V 100% Rest 0%
24.67V 90% 10%
24.14V 80% 20%
23.72V 70% 30%
23.25V 60% 40%
23.01V 50% 50%
22.77V 40% 60%
22.60V 30% 70%
22.36V 20% 80%
22.12V 10% 90%
19.94V 0% 100%

Lead-acid batteries are like the old-school yet trusty solution for storing energy and they’re used in a bunch of different areas. You’ve got two main types: the flooded or wet lead-acid batteries and the sealed lead-acid batteries, also known as SLA or VRLA. The flooded ones are cheaper to make, so they’re more budget-friendly, but they need some regular TLC like adding distilled water and making sure they’re well-ventilated to avoid any buildup of sulfuric acid gases. On the flip side, SLA/VRLA batteries are more tightly sealed, which means less fuss in maintaining them, and they’re better at preventing leaks, so they can handle a variety of environmental conditions better.

Plus, lead-acid batteries are all over the place in different fields, like being key players in solar power and other renewable energy systems, crucial parts of Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), and they’re also big in the auto industry for starting engines and stuff. They’re super reliable and the technology is well-established, which is why they’re often the go-to choice in these scenarios.

When it comes to voltages, lead-acid batteries typically come in a few standard levels – the most common ones are 12V, 24V, and 48V. These levels have to do with how the batteries are hooked up – either in series or parallel – to meet different power needs. It’s worth noting that to get a good read on a lead-acid battery’s charge state, it’s best to check it out at room temperature after it’s been chilling for at least half an hour. Also, the Depth of Discharge (DOD) for these batteries is usually about 50%, which means you’re only using about half of what the battery can hold. Pushing it beyond that can mess with the battery’s life and performance.

Even though lead-acid batteries aren’t as eco-friendly or energy-dense compared to the newer battery tech out there, their cost-effectiveness, reliability, and low-maintenance vibe still make them a strong option in some cases. But, with tech moving forward, new battery types like lithium are starting to take over some of the roles that lead-acid batteries used to fill. Still, lead-acid batteries are expected to stick around in certain areas for the foreseeable future.

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
12.89V 100%  0%
12.78V 90% 10%
12.65V 80% 20%
12.51V 70% 30%
12.41V 60% 40%
12.23V 50% 50%
12.11V 40% 60%
11.96V 30% 70%
11.81V 20% 80%
11.70V 10% 90%
11.63V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
12.64V 100%  0%
12.53V 90% 10%
12.41V 80% 20%
12.29V 70% 30%
12.18V 60% 40%
12.07V 50% 50%
11.97V 40% 60%
11.87V 30% 70%
11.76V 20% 80%
11.63V 10% 90%
11.59V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
25.77V 100%  0%
25.56V 90% 10%
25.31V 80% 20%
25.02V 70% 30%
24.81V 60% 40%
24.45V 50% 50%
24.21V 40% 60%
23.91V 30% 70%
23.61V 20% 80%
23.40V 10% 90%
23.25V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
25.29V 100%  0%
25.05V 90% 10%
24.81V 80% 20%
24.58V 70% 30%
24.36V 60% 40%
24.14V 50% 50%
23.94V 40% 60%
23.74V 30% 70%
23.51V 20% 80%
23.27V 10% 90%
23.18V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
52.00V 100%  0%
51.10V 90% 10%
50.00V 80% 20%
49.20V 70% 30%
48.60V 60% 40%
48.20V 50% 50%
47.80V 40% 60%
47.24V 30% 70%
46.64V 20% 80%
46.04V 10% 90%
42.00V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
50.92V 100%  0%
50.48V 90% 10%
50.00V 80% 20%
49.48V 70% 30%
48.95V 60% 40%
48.40V 50% 50%
47.84V 40% 60%
47.24V 30% 70%
46.64V 20% 80%
46.04V 10% 90%
45.44V 0% 100%

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) batteries can have different voltage levels, just like other types of lead-acid batteries. AGM technology is a specific kind of lead-acid battery design that uses glass fiber mats to soak up and hold the electrolyte in place. This design lets AGM batteries work in various orientations without leaking, and they also offer great resistance to shaking around and tend to last longer. AGM batteries are also made by linking up individual cells (usually 2 volts each) in a series to create higher-voltage batteries. That’s why you can find AGM batteries in various voltages like 12V, 24V, 36V, 48V, etc., to suit different needs. These batteries are super popular in electric vehicles, solar power systems, power tools, marine applications, medical equipment, and pretty much any situation where you need a reliable power source. Thanks to these features, AGM batteries are especially popular in scenarios where you want something that needs less upkeep and is more durable.

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
13.00V 100% Charging 0%
12.85V 100% Rest 0%
12.80V 90% 10%
12.75V 80% 20%
12.50V 70% 30%
12.30V 60% 40%
12.15V 50% 50%
12.05V 40% 60%
11.95V 30% 70%
11.81V 20% 80%
11.66V 10% 90%
10.50V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
26.00V 100% Charging 0%
25.85V 100% Rest 0%
25.55V 90% 10%
25.00V 80% 20%
24.60V 70% 30%
24.30V 60% 40%
24.10V 50% 50%
23.90V 40% 60%
23.62V 30% 70%
23.32V 20% 80%
23.02V 10% 90%
21.00V 0% 100%

Voltage Status Percentage(DoD)
52.00V 100% Charging 0%
51.70V 100% Rest 0%
51.10V 90% 10%
50.00V 80% 20%
49.20V 70% 30%
48.60V 60% 40%
48.20V 50% 50%
47.80V 40% 60%
47.24V 30% 70%
46.64V 20% 80%
46.04V 10% 90%
42.00V 0% 100%

Importance of Battery Balancing for Stable Operation of Battery Packs

  • Consistency in Performance: Balancing ensures all cells in a battery pack perform equally during discharge and charge cycles. An unbalanced battery pack can lead to reduced overall performance due to inconsistencies in individual cells’ charging and discharging states.
  • Extended Lifespan: Each cell in a battery pack might have different capacities and impedances due to manufacturing tolerances and usage conditions. Balancing minimizes overcharging or deep discharging caused by differences in cell performance, extending the overall lifespan of the battery pack.
  • Safety: An unbalanced battery pack might lead to some cells being overcharged or deeply discharged, increasing the risk of thermal runaway and damage. Balancing prevents these extreme conditions, maintaining safe and stable operation.
  • Maximized Capacity: Balancing ensures that each cell is fully charged, allowing the battery pack to utilize its maximum capacity during discharge. This is particularly important for applications requiring maximum battery efficiency, like electric vehicles.
  • Improved Reliability: In critical applications like medical devices or emergency backup systems that rely on continuous power supply, balancing enhances overall system reliability.
  • Optimized Performance: Balanced battery packs operate at their best, improving the effective output of energy and overall system performance.

Common Methods of Battery Balancing

Battery balancing can be achieved through passive (resistive dissipation of excess charge) or active (energy transfer or other methods) techniques. Considering balancing strategies in the design and maintenance of battery packs is crucial to ensure long-term stability and efficiency.

Understanding Individual Cell Voltage Curves Aids in Better Battery Balancing

  • Voltage curves show individual cells’ voltage variations throughout the charging and discharging cycles, helping identify performance differences between cells.
  • Battery balancing is about ensuring all cells maintain uniformity in voltage and capacity. Observing the voltage curves of battery pack cells reveals that even cells with similar performance at manufacturing can vary in capacity and voltage characteristics over time and with more charging cycles. Understanding these curves helps devise strategies to adjust each cell’s state, preventing overcharging or deep discharging, which could degrade the battery pack or even cause damage.
  • During the balancing process, voltage curves are a critical reference, indicating if each cell’s charging state has reached the ideal voltage level. Balancing systems monitor these curves during charging, ensuring all cells are evenly charged, and maintaining the overall health and efficiency of the battery pack. Similarly, during discharge, balancing ensures no single cell is overly depleted, preventing early failure of the entire battery pack.

  • Depth of Discharge (DoD): Deeper discharges accelerate the degradation of battery chemistry and internal structure, causing more intense chemical reactions during charging and faster wear of battery materials. Frequent deep discharges shorten the overall lifespan of the battery. In summary, shallow discharges reduce the impact of each charging cycle on battery health, thereby extending its lifespan.
  • Discharge C-Rate: Higher discharge rates require the battery to release more energy in a shorter period, leading to increased internal temperature and accelerated chemical reactions, thus speeding up aging and capacity decay. High discharge rates increase stress on the battery, shortening its cycle life.
  • Usage Habits: Frequent deep discharges, overcharging, charging at high temperatures, or prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures accelerate the degradation of battery chemistry, reducing its effective lifespan. Reasonable usage habits, like avoiding overcharging and using at suitable temperatures, help extend the battery’s cycle life.
  • Temperature/Humidity: Extreme high temperatures accelerate internal chemical reactions, causing permanent capacity loss, while low temperatures reduce discharge efficiency and power output. High humidity can damage internal structures, leading to shorts or reduced insulation performance. Properly controlling the temperature and humidity environment helps maintain battery stability and prolong life.
  • BMS Quality: The quality of the Battery Management System (BMS) significantly impacts the cycle life of lithium batteries. A high-quality BMS with balancing capabilities, including active and passive balancing, ensures that each cell in the battery pack operates optimally, reducing inconsistencies among batteries. Additionally, some BMSs integrate intelligent management systems, working in conjunction with inverters and other devices for automated charging and disconnection, preventing overuse, and providing appropriate maintenance when needed. These advanced features protect the battery from immediate damage and extend its overall lifespan by optimizing usage modes and providing appropriate charge/discharge cycles.
  • Cell Quality: The quality of the cells themselves affects the cycle life of lithium batteries. Different brands of cells vary in manufacturing processes, material purity, and coating uniformity. High-quality manufacturing ensures the integrity of internal structures and stability of chemical reactions, improving durability and cycle count. The uniformity of the coating process directly affects the battery’s electrochemical performance. Inconsistent coating leads to uneven battery performance and accelerated degradation. Therefore, high standards of production and quality control are key to ensuring the quality of cells and the

To check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack, you can use a multimeter, although it can’t directly measure the battery’s capacity in milliamp-hours (mAh) or amp-hours (Ah). Instead, you’ll be indirectly assessing the capacity by measuring the discharge process. Here’s a basic guide on how to do this:

Preparation:

  • Ensure your multimeter is functioning correctly and set to measure DC current within an appropriate range.
  • Prepare a load of known power (or current), such as a resistor or a dedicated battery discharge tester.

Measuring Initial Voltage of the Battery Pack:

  • Use the multimeter’s voltage measurement function to measure the total voltage of the battery pack, ensuring the battery pack is fully charged.

Connect Load and Begin Discharge:

  • Connect the load to the battery pack and start discharging. Make sure the discharge current is within the permissible range of the battery specifications.

Monitor the Discharge Process:

  • Periodically check and record the battery voltage, noting the discharge time and corresponding voltage readings. Keep the discharge current consistent.
  • Stop discharging when the battery voltage drops to its minimum discharge voltage (typically 2.5V per cell for LiFePO4 batteries).

Calculate Capacity:

  • Capacity (Ah) = Discharge Current (A) × Discharge Time (Hours)
  • If you’re using a resistor as the load, you might need to calculate the discharge current based on the size of the resistor and the battery voltage.

Analyze Results:

  • Compare the calculated actual capacity with the rated capacity specified in the battery specs to assess the health of the battery pack.

Please note, that this method provides a simplified capacity check. Real-world battery capacity testing may need to account for more variables, such as temperature, battery aging, and discharge rate. In practice, using professional battery testing equipment would yield more accurate results. Additionally, if you’re not familiar with handling and testing batteries, it’s advisable to consult a professional to ensure safety.

Using a Battery Monitoring System (BMS) to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is a more direct and automated method than using a multimeter. A BMS can provide real-time data monitoring, including battery voltage, current, temperature, and estimated remaining capacity. Here are the basic steps to check battery capacity using a battery monitoring device:

Installing the Battery Monitoring Device:

  • If not already installed, first, install the battery monitoring device onto the battery pack following the manufacturer’s guidelines. Ensure all connections are correct and secure.

Charge to Full:

  • Fully charge the battery pack until the monitoring device indicates that the batteries have reached their full charge state (for LiFePO4 batteries, the full charge voltage is usually 3.6V to 3.65V per cell).

Set Discharge Parameters:

  • Set the correct battery parameters on the BMS, including battery type, nominal voltage, full charge voltage, and minimum discharge voltage.

Start Discharge:

  • Begin the discharge process, ensuring that the discharge current complies with the battery pack’s recommended discharge current specifications. The BMS will record the discharge current and time.

Monitor and Record Data:

  • The BMS will provide a real-time discharge curve and display the process from full charge to the cutoff voltage (usually 2.5V per cell).

Calculate Capacity:

  • Most battery monitoring devices can automatically calculate and display the total energy released during a discharge cycle, typically expressed in amp-hours (Ah) or watt-hours (Wh).

Analyze Battery Status:

  • Use the data provided by the BMS to assess the health of the battery pack. If the actual capacity is significantly lower than its rated capacity, it may indicate a decline in battery performance or issues with some cells in the pack.

Please note that this process should be conducted under safe conditions and by the guidelines provided by the battery and BMS manufacturers. Regularly performing such capacity tests can help identify battery issues promptly and ensure optimal performance of the battery pack.

Using a solar charge controller to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack involves monitoring the battery’s behavior during the charging and discharging processes. Solar charge controllers typically can monitor battery voltage, current, and sometimes even temperature. With this data, you can indirectly estimate the battery’s capacity. Here’s a basic guide:

Ensure Appropriate Settings:

  • Make sure the solar charge controller is compatible with your LiFePO4 battery pack and correctly set for the battery type, charging voltage, and other relevant parameters.

Charge the Battery Pack:

  • Charge the battery pack to full capacity using the solar charge controller. Many solar charge controllers can display the status and progress of the battery charging.

Record Charging Data:

  • Record the current and time data shown by the charge controller during the process from the beginning of charging to the full charge state. This can help you estimate the maximum capacity of the battery.

Discharge Test:

  • Start from a fully charged state and allow the battery pack to discharge normally through a connected load, such as a home solar system, lighting, etc.
  • The solar charge controller should display the discharge current and voltage, and some advanced models may even provide readings of energy consumption.

Calculate Discharge Capacity:

  • By recording the current and time during the discharge process, you can estimate the capacity of the battery pack in amp-hours (Ah). For example, if the discharge current is 5A and lasts for 4 hours, then the battery capacity is approximately 20Ah.

Analyze Battery State:

  • Using this data, you can understand the performance of the battery under actual use conditions. If the actual capacity of the battery is significantly lower than its rated capacity, it may indicate a decline in battery performance.

Please note that this method can only provide an estimated battery capacity and is not a substitute for professional battery testing equipment. It’s a useful approach for a general understanding of the battery’s condition and performance in a solar energy setup.

Indeed, many modern inverters, particularly those designed for solar panels or home battery storage systems, do have the capability to communicate directly with a Battery Management System (BMS). Such inverters can provide more accurate and detailed data about the battery’s status, including the voltage of each cell, the total capacity of the entire battery pack, and the current charging and discharging status. Here are the steps to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack using these features:

Configuration and Connection:

  • Ensure that the inverter is correctly configured and connected to the Battery Management System (BMS). This usually involves software settings and the proper hardware interface.

Monitoring Software:

  • Use the monitoring software or control panel of the inverter to view relevant information about the battery pack. These systems typically provide real-time and historical data, including the charge/discharge status of the battery pack, cell voltages, total capacity, etc.

Checking Charge/Discharge Status:

  • Observe the battery’s performance under different charging and discharging states. Some systems may also offer advanced features like State of Charge (SOC) estimation and State of Health (SOH) analysis.

Record and Analyze Data:

  • Utilize this data to assess the overall performance and health of the battery pack. If the system provides graphs or trend analysis, it can be easier to identify potential issues or performance degradation.

Utilize Diagnostic Tools:

  • If the inverter or BMS offers diagnostic tools or performance testing features, use these tools for a more in-depth inspection of the battery pack.

Using the built-in communication capabilities of an inverter for battery checks is not only convenient but also provides more accurate and comprehensive information. This is particularly valuable for systems that require fine-tuned battery management, such as solar energy storage systems or electric vehicles. This approach allows users to easily monitor and maintain their battery packs, ensuring long-term reliability and performance.

Using a smartphone app, especially one connected via Bluetooth, to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is indeed a very modern and convenient method. These apps are typically available for various operating systems like iOS, Android, and HarmonyOS, and can be downloaded from their respective app stores. Here’s a general process for checking battery capacity using such apps:

Download and Install the App:

  • On your smartphone, go to the app store corresponding to your operating system (iOS, Android, or HarmonyOS) and download a dedicated battery monitoring app.

Connect to the Battery Pack:

  • Activate Bluetooth on your phone and ensure the battery pack’s Bluetooth module is turned on.
  • Search for and connect to your LiFePO4 battery pack in the app.

View Battery Information:

  • Once connected, you can view various information about the battery pack on the app, including total capacity, voltage of each cell, charging and discharging status, total current, and battery temperature.

Battery Capacity Check:

  • The app may display the battery’s current State of Charge (SOC) and estimated remaining capacity. Some apps also provide historical data and capacity trend analysis.

Balance Control and Troubleshooting:

  • Advanced apps may offer battery balancing control features, allowing you to manually initiate or adjust balancing settings to optimize the performance of the battery pack.
  • If the app includes diagnostic tools, you can use them to detect and troubleshoot potential battery faults.

Data Analysis and Maintenance Recommendations:

  • Use the data and analysis tools provided by the app to assess the health and performance of the battery pack.
  • Perform appropriate maintenance and interventions based on the app’s recommendations to ensure long-term stable operation of the battery pack.

The advantage of this method lies in its convenience and real-time capability. An app connected via Bluetooth offers an intuitive, user-friendly way to monitor and manage the battery pack, making it easy even for non-professional users to perform battery maintenance and troubleshooting. Additionally, the ability to remotely control and monitor the battery pack brings greater flexibility and efficiency to battery management.

Using a web browser to check the capacity of a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is indeed a convenient and efficient method, particularly when the battery pack is connected to an inverter with communication capabilities. These inverters can upload battery data to a cloud platform in real time, allowing users to remotely monitor the battery status through a browser. Here are the basic steps for this process:

Ensure Inverter is Connected to the Cloud Platform:

  • First, confirm that your inverter has data upload capabilities and is successfully connected to the cloud platform. This typically requires some initial setup, including network connection and platform account configuration.

Access the Cloud Platform:

  • Enter the cloud platform’s URL in your browser and log in with your account. This information is usually provided by the inverter or battery system supplier.

Navigate to the Battery Monitoring Interface:

  • On the cloud platform, locate the monitoring or dashboard interface related to your battery system. This may include an overview page showing all your connected and bound battery systems.

View Battery Capacity and Other Information:

  • On the battery monitoring interface, you can view key information about your LiFePO4 battery pack, including current capacity, voltage, cycle count, State of Charge (SOC), and more.
  • Some platforms may also provide historical data and trend analysis of the battery, helping you understand the usage and health status of the battery.

Utilize Additional Features:

  • Depending on the platform’s features, you might be able to perform remote operations, such as adjusting charging and discharging settings, executing battery balancing, or troubleshooting potential issues.

Regular Checks and Data Analysis:

  • Regularly log in to the cloud platform to check battery data, ensuring the battery pack is functioning normally and identifying potential issues in time.

The advantage of accessing battery data via a web browser is that you can perform remote monitoring anytime and anywhere, without geographical limitations. This method offers great convenience and flexibility in managing and maintaining battery packs, especially suitable for users who need to remotely manage multiple systems or stay informed about system status while on the move.

Author Profile

Thomas Chen

Thomas Chen is a seasoned expert in the new energy industry, with a focus on lithium battery technology. A Shenzhen University alumnus, class of 2010, Thomas has cultivated a wealth of experience through pivotal roles at EVE and BYD. Renowned for his profound insights into the sector, he possesses a unique aptitude for identifying market trends and understanding customer needs. His articles offer a distinctive perspective, drawn from a rich background in the field.

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